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NEPAL General Information

King King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev
Capital Kathmandu
Area total: 140,800 sq km
land: 136,800 sq km
water: 4,000 sq km
Land boundaries: total: 2,926 km
border countries: China 1,236 km, India 1,690 km
Climate Varies from cool summers and severe winters in north to subtropical summers and mild winters in south
Natural Resources Quartz, water, timber, hydropower potential, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore
Irrigated land 8,500 sq km (approx.)
Natural hazards Severe thunderstorms, flooding, landslides, drought, and famine depending on the timing, intensity, and duration of the summer monsoons
Environment-international agreements party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation
Population 24,302,653 (approx.)
Birth rate 35.32 births/1,000 population (approx.)
Death rate 10.18 deaths/1,000 population (approx.)
Net migration rate 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (approx.)
Sex ratio at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.05 male(s)/female (approx.)
Life expectancy at birth total population: 58.42 years
male: 58.47 years
female: 58.36 years (approx.)
Religions Hindu 90%, Buddhist 5%, Muslim 3%, other 2%
note: only official Hindu state in the world, although no sharp distinction between many Hindu and Buddhist groups
Legislative Body bicameral Parliament consists of the National Council
Official Language Nepali (official), 20 other languages divided into numerous dialects
Literacy definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 27.5%
male: 40.9%
female: 14% (approx.)
Currency 1 Nepalese rupee (NR) = 100 paise   Current Exchange Rate                    
Legal System Based on Hindu legal concepts and English common law; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
GDP: Purchasing Power Parity -$26.2 billion (approx.)
GDP - real growth rate 4.9% (approx.)
GDP - per capita purchasing power parity-$1,100 (approx.)
GDP - Composition by sector agriculture: 41%
industry: 22%
services: 37% (approx.)
Economy Overview Nepal is among the poorest and least developed countries in the world with nearly half of its population living below the poverty line. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy, providing a livelihood for over 80% of the population and accounting for 41% of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Production of textiles and carpets has expanded recently and accounted for about 80% of foreign exchange earnings in the past three years. Apart from agricultural land and forests, exploitable natural resources are mica, hydropower, and tourism. Agricultural production is growing by about 5% on average as compared with annual population growth of 2.5%. The government has been moving forward with economic reforms particularly those that encourage trade and foreign investment, e.g., by eliminating business licenses and registration requirements in order to simplify investment procedures. The government has also been cutting expenditures by reducing subsidies, privatizing state industries, and laying off civil servants. More recently, however, political instability-five different governments over the past few years-has hampered Kathmandu's ability to forge consensus to implement key economic reforms. Nepal has considerable scope for accelerating economic growth by exploiting its potential in hydropower and tourism, areas of recent foreign investment interest. Prospects for foreign trade or investment in other sectors will remain poor, however, because of the small size of the economy, its technological backwardness, its remoteness, its landlocked geographic location, and its susceptibility to natural disaster. The international community's role of funding more than 60% of Nepal's development budget and more than 28% of total budgetary expenditures will likely continue as a major ingredient of growth.
Population below poverty line 42%(approx.)
Household income lowest 10%: 3.2%
highest 10%: 29.8%(approx.)
Inflation rate (consumer prices) 7.8% (approx.)
Industries Tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarette; cement and brick production
Agriculture- products Rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat
Exports $394 million (approx.), but does not include unrecorded border trade with India
Exports-commodities Carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain
Exports-partners India, US, Germany, UK
Imports $1.7 billion (approx.)
Imports-commodities Petroleum products 20%, fertilizer 11%, machinery 10%
Imports-partners India, Singapore, Japan, Germany
Telephones 115,911 (approx.)
Telephone system Poor telephone and telegraph service; fair radiotelephone communication service
domestic: NA
international: radiotelephone communications; satellite earth station-1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
Radio Broadcast stations AM 88, FM 1, short wave 0
Radios 690,000 (approx.)
Television broadcast station 6 (approx.)
Televisions 45,000 (approx.)
Railways total: 101 km; note-all in Kosi close to Indian border
narrow gauge: 101 km 0.762-m gauge
Highways total: 7,700 km
paved: 3,196 km
unpaved: 4,504 km (approx.)
Ports and harbors None
Airports 45 (approx.)
Tax Structure Tax Structure
International Membership AsDB, CCC, CP, ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OPCW, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNPREDEP, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (applicant)             

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