An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to high pressure saturated steam at 121 °C (249°F) for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. It was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1879, although a precursor known as the steam digester was created by Denis Papin in 1679. The name comes from Greek auto-, ultimately meaning self, and Latinclavis meaning Keya self-locking device. Other types of autoclave are used in the chemical industry to cure coatings, vulcanize rubber and for hydrothermal synthesis, growing crystals under high temperatures and pressures. Synthetic quartz crystals used in the electronic industry are grown in autoclaves.