They operate in a head range of 100 meters to 1000 meters and are primarily used for electrical power production. The power output ranges from 200KW to 20000KW, Runner diameters are between 0.13 and 5.81 meters. The speed range of the turbine is from 250 to 1000 rpm.
* The runner works by being heavily pushed with jet flow that is switched through injection nozzle from high-pressure pipe. The feature is that is works by impulsing the runner to rotate with kinetic energy of water flow, and the jet center of nozzle and the runner are in the same plane.
* It is divided into vertical type and horizontal type two kinds. Horizontal type each has 1-2 runner, each runner has 1-2 nozzle, vertical type each has only one runner, each runner has 2-4 nozzles.